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The lives of many families involve contact with more than one language and culture on a daily basis. Growing Up with Two Languages is aimed at the many parents and professionals who feel uncertain about the best way to go about helping children gain Col variare dell'addestramento e dell'esperienza di ogni parlante, variano il livello e la tipologia Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to the Enhanced Pearson eText.
What young children from diverse backgrounds and those faced with the Growing research shows that many children from immigrant and refugee families are not doing well in school, due in part to linguistic and cultural disadvantages. Teaching dual-language learners requires cultural sensitivity, an understanding of language As educators and legislators across the country debate how to improve public schools, the most vital factor often disappears from the equation-the relationship between the teacher and the student.
According to veteran educators Rita and Marco Portales, These two insights, that bilingualism is a common human condition and The chapters represent a comprehensive and The issues raised within this This filename was submitted by an external advertiser. As an access provider we do not assume responsibility for the availability of this file in the Usenet. Open Web Book Archive.
DMCA Contact. Results of her studies show that both teachers and students are inclined to use code-switching in an EFL classroom to make the concepts clearer and more understandable for the students.
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She concludes that code-switching benefits bilinguals such that communication gaps are filled. Her quantitative study on students of various schools reveals that educational background is an important factor in the language proficiency of a bilingual and that this may further be enhanced by the way a second language is used in the home. Such exposure may provide the learner more access to the use of the English language.
Adebola then concludes that code-switching may be allowed in informal setting; however, using the English language must still be encouraged and used in formal settings. In a descriptive research conducted by Krishna Bista in Alabama in , she identifies and evaluates the factors affecting code-switching in university classrooms. She asserts that language incompetence is the primary factor why bilinguals code- switch and all the other functions as previously mentioned in other studies come into play in order to perform communicative and social functions.
In a qualitative study done to a heterogeneous group of students and teachers in the first year level of Miriam College during the Christian Life Education subject, data show that code-switching in the classroom is preferred and therefore, acceptable. Based on these findings, Abad then concludes that code-switching has favorable effects on the learner, contrary to the common belief that it impedes the learning of English as a second language.
Abad furtherclaims that code-switching practices can facilitate better understanding of difficult academic concepts in various subject areas. In a study conducted by Metila on code-switching, she identifies the code- switching patterns of both the teachers and students in the classroom in an effort to address these appropriately through language teaching modifications. According to this study, patterns were generated from the Corpus of Satuito and Bautista , though some utterances remain unidentified.
As to whether or not code-switching should be permitted in the classroom, Metila claims that code-switching practice serves particular functions in an educative setting such as social, communicative and pedagogical functions. With these results, Metila concludes that the functions of code-switching overrule the strict use of a single language in the classroom and that a language switch should be permitted in order to make the communication more comprehensible.
Bernardo revisits the various propositions given in relation to language and learning. He poses that some of the language assumptions are no longer tenable because of the changes in the social dynamics especially as an effect of globalization where countries become more multicultural, thus becoming multilingual.
Bernardo affirms the role of code-switching in the learning process as it clarifies concepts which can best be explained through the alternate use of languages where the speakers are proficient at. Bernardo concludes that code-switching, though may be beneficial, should not underestimate the importance of learning the competencies of two or more languages separately, that code-switching may be a disadvantage for a bilingual who is faced with a monolingual and therefore, code-switching must be used as a foundation in learning languages more competently.
In another related study, Borlongan looks at the Tagalog-English code- switching in English Language classes. In thisdescriptive research, the data presented an overwhelming figure of code-switching occurrence in classroom coming from both the teachers and students during English language classes. Though this may be the case, some of the researches claiming its importance dealt with non-language subject area such as Christian Living, Mathematics and Science.
Methodology Research Design and Methods This descriptive research will be undertaken using observation and interview. Participants The participants in this research will be all of the ten 10 subject teachers of fourth year level and one class section with forty 40 fourth year high school students, mixed gender, with ages ranging from 15 to 17 of Caritas Don Bosco School.
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The sectioning in this school is done at random which follows that the sampling procedure too is at random since the sections are heterogeneous in nature. A one-hour class observation on each of the subjects of the participating section will be done by the researcher with distinct focus on the interaction, formal or informal, between the teacher and the students.
Furthermore, the researcher willunobtrusively video record all oral interactions in the class to supplement the tabulated data that will be gathered. The transcribed utterances will be tabulated according to frequency and type of code-switching that will be used by the teachers and students.
These data will present how high or low the code-switching occurrence is in the classroom.
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Video recorder will be used during the observation to pick up all oral communication processes occurring in the classroom, formal and informal. A set of interview questions will be given to obtain the data necessary for the analysis of the study. Data Analysis The data will be analyzed based on the average of code-switching frequency. Though there have been no studies yet that would ascertain a particular rate of code- switching as significant, the data will present how high or low code-switching frequency occurs in the classroom both from the teachers and the students.
December Code-switching in the classroom: A clash of two languages. Faculty Research Journal of Miriam College, 25 1 , Adebola, O. Journal of Education and Practice, 2 5 , Bista, K. Factors of code switching among bilingual English students in the university classroom: A survey.
Bilingualism - The Sociopragmatic Psycholinguistic Interface
English for Specific Purposes World, 9, 29 , 1- Borlongan, A. Tagalog-English code-switching in English language classes: Frequency and forms.
Cole, S. The use of L1 in communicative English classrooms. The Language Teacher 22, Jingxia, L.
Related Bilingualism: The Sociopragmatic-Psycholinguistic Interface
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