What does shifting historiographies and decolonised perspectives mean for current understandings of migrants and refugees? How does migration influence what is defined as cultural heritage in a particular time and place? How can migration be understood as a form of cultural heritage? Michael Barrett , PhD in Anthropology and curator of Africa at the Swedish Museums of World Culture, and Josette Bushell-Mingo , head of the Department of Acting at Stockholm University of the Arts and founder of the National Black Theatre of Sweden, discuss the historical presence of people of African descent in Sweden and current attempts to remember, archive and narrate their histories and heritage.
What conversations might practitioners of the arts, literature, archives and museums have in grappling with these objectives? Detailed information about the venue.
Migrating Heritage : Perla Innocenti (author) : : Blackwell's
Kontaktperson Anna Laine Staben 85 46 anna. There are three major reasons for this. First, the recent crimes against cultural heritage have not always been committed in international armed conflicts involving acts that can be attributed to States. Second, it is disputable whether international responsibility can be effectively invoked when such acts were committed by a State against cultural heritage situated on its own territory, as happened in Syria when the Syrian Army attacked cultural heritage sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, such as Krak des Chevaliers.
Thus the question arises whether a State or States other than an injured State may effectively invoke the responsibility of another State if the cultural heritage obligation breached is owed to the international community as a whole, as provided by Article 48 1 b of the Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts ARSIWA.
Indeed, the existence of such obligations, even in relation to the World Heritage Sites, has not been yet widely and unanimously accepted by the international community. Finally, the recent attacks against cultural heritage have been committed by various non-State, extremist, and terrorist groups operating beyond the control of any State. The latter feature of the current crimes against cultural heritage in armed conflict raises the questions of efficient measures to counteract such offences and eliminate the impunity of perpetrators, thus also raising questions about international criminal liability rather than State responsibility for wrongful acts.
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Since the horrifying experience of the wars in the former Yugoslavia, the regime of international criminal law has been significantly extended to cover cultural heritage crimes committed in armed conflict. The Second Protocol to the Hague Convention set up the most advanced and detailed regime of individual criminal responsibility for offences against cultural heritage committed in both international and non-international armed conflicts.
It is also the first time when an international criminal tribunal dealt exclusively with the crime of intentional deliberate attacks directed against protected cultural heritage sites. However, it needs to be emphasized that the ICC will very unlikely serve as the global forum for executing justice in respect of cultural heritage crimes.
Migrating Heritage: Experiences of Cultural Networks and Cultural Dialogue in Europe
It also appears that the Al-Mahdi case, important and instructive as it is, does not provide any easy pathway for further prosecutions. The conviction of Al Mahdi was based on his guilty plea, which resulted in a rather quick and smooth trial and no lodging of appeals, but it is unlikely that future trials would go so smoothly. Such circumstances are not likely to characterize other instances of cultural heritage crimes.
Hence it remains the prime responsibility of States to prosecute international cultural heritage crimes before their respective domestic courts. To date no corporate entity non-State group has been prosecuted by any domestic or international court for any international cultural heritage crime. Furthermore, there is no such practice in relation to any other international crimes either. Importantly, the statutes of international criminal tribunals, including the Rome Statute, provide only for jurisdiction over natural persons — not their collectivities. All the aforementioned shortcomings of the current international law system for the effective protection of cultural heritage in armed conflicts as well as the struggle against the violations of international obligations in this regard call for an enhanced international cooperation.
This would involve the practical implementation of the principal of cooperation enshrined in the vast international law instrumentarium, both in the realm of cultural heritage protection as well as in novel methods of global governance, involving the coordination of actions of various stakeholders, including non-State actors. The protection and enjoyment of cultural heritage are thus increasingly seen as crucial for effective global governance and indivisible from the development of a global civic society.
Hence cultural belonging, cultural rights, cultural voice, and cultural inclusion — for both individuals and groups — now constitute claims which can be incorporated into demands for the realization of economic, political and social rights. One of the major concerns voiced in relation to the conflicts in Syria and Iraq is the struggle against illicit traffic in cultural objects and the facilitation of their return to the countries of origin.
The conference gathered together the representatives of forty States, museum officials, heritage experts and non-governmental organizations. The final declaration also envisages the creation of an international fund for the protection of endangered cultural heritage during armed conflict, which would help finance preventive and emergency operations, the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural artefacts, as well as contribute to the restoration of damaged cultural property.
Resolution 2347: Mainstreaming the protection of cultural heritage at the global level
Moreover, it foresees the creation of an international network of safe havens to temporarily safeguard cultural property endangered by armed conflicts or terrorism on the territory where it is located, or if it cannot be secured at the national level, in a neighbouring country, or as a last resort in another country, in accordance with international law at the request of the governments concerned, and taking into account the national and regional characteristics and contexts of the cultural property to be protected.
Such a cooperative, participatory method for the protection of cultural heritage has also been emphasized by UNESCO as a part of its role in global governance.
The campaign, triggered by the destruction of cultural heritage in Syria and Iraq, invites people to change their profile on social networks to raise awareness about heritage destruction and to promote sustainable activities to enhance the societal values of heritage. Without doubt the protection of cultural heritage today constitutes a global imperative, calling for political, legal and technical cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating solutions intended to be implemented on an international scale.
However, the value of cultural heritage for global development, the maintenance of peace, and the protection of all human rights is hampered by the weaknesses of the existing legal mechanisms on the one hand, and the evolving multipolar and multilevel initiatives and programmes on the other. A more integrated approach and focused guidance are necessary.
Unsurprisingly, the role of the UNSC can be viewed as paramount in these consolidating processes. Indeed, since the end of cold war the activity of the UNSC, as the core organ responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security, has intensified. This includes activities focused on the protection of cultural heritage. In the context of the armed conflicts in Kuwait  and Iraq  the UNSC has become an important cultural heritage law-maker.
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, it has set up binding obligations supplementing and reinforcing the existing set of international cultural heritage obligations.
Experiences of Cultural Networks and Cultural Dialogue in Europe, 1st Edition
In particular, UNSC Resolution confirmed the binding obligation of the entire international community to counteract the crimes against cultural heritage committed in armed conflicts. In a similar vein, the series of resolutions adopted in relation to the situations in Mali, Syria and Iraq have widely addressed the binding nature of the prohibition of attacks directed against protected cultural heritage, including the plunder of cultural property. In particular, UNSC Resolution , adopted in ,  obliged all the States to take — in cooperation with Interpol, UNESCO and other international organizations — appropriate measures to counteract the trade in cultural, scientific and religious objects unlawfully removed from the territories of Iraq and Syria in order to disrupt terrorist financing through the illicit trafficking of antiquities.
The UN Member States are thus obliged to prohibit the international trade in such materials and facilitate their safely return to the peoples of Iraq and Syria. The implementation of these provisions has resulted in a set of national and regional instruments designed to control the cross-border circulation of cultural material originating from these conflict-ridden territories.
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According to Irina Bokova, Director General of UNESCO, nearly fifty States have already strengthened their legislation and are sharing information and data in order to dismantle trafficking routes and to facilitate the return of unlawfully removed and traded cultural property. Academics, practitioners from museums and public institutions and policymakers explore theoretical and practical approaches from a range of different disciplines such as museum and cultural heritage studies, cultural memory studies, social anthropology, sociology of organizations, cultural heritage management and cultural heritage informatics.
This book takes up the important topic of how cultural institutions across Europe are responding to heightened globalization, migration, and interculturality. Theoretically rich and practically-oriented, it brings to light when and how museums are helping to create successful diverse communities and nations. It devotes itself to the question of how public cultural institutions can react to the effects of globalization in Europe.
The suggestions and case studies in this volume broaden one's mind since they are written by authors with different professional backgrounds and thus go beyond the usual academic discussion. It brings together an impressive multi-disciplinary array of authors, including academic analysts, educators and curators, whose critical perspectives produce a creative dialogue that lays good foundations for the development of innovative approaches to grappling with issues around unbounded identities and displaced heritages.
As the issues of immigration and migration, citizenship, national identity, and related problems such as poverty are not only limited to the European context, readers in the U. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days.
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